The Main Role Of Maritime Transport
1. Marine cargo transport is the main mode of international trade transport
Although the international marine cargo transport has the disadvantages of low speed and high risk, it has become the main transport mode in international trade due to its advantages of large carrying capacity, large volume, low freight, and strong adaptability to goods, as well as the unique geographical conditions of the world. 80%~90% of China's total import and export goods are transported by sea. Because of the rise and development of container transportation, it not only makes the transportation of goods develop in the direction of centralization and rationalization, but also saves the packaging materials and freight and miscellaneous charges, reduces the cargo damage, ensures the transportation quality, shortens the transportation time, and reduces the transportation cost.
2. Marine cargo transportation is one of the important channels for the country to save foreign exchange payments and increase foreign exchange income
In China, the freight expenditure generally accounts for about 10% of the total import and export volume of foreign trade, especially the freight of bulk goods. If we make full use of international trade terms in trade and strive for more ships, we will not only save the payment of foreign exchange, but also strive for more foreign exchange income. In particular, China's transport capacity will be invested in the international shipping market, and the transportation of third countries will be actively carried out to create foreign exchange revenue for the country. All countries in the world, especially coastal developing countries, attach great importance to the establishment of their own ocean-going fleets and the development of marine cargo transport. In some developed shipping countries, the income of foreign exchange freight has become an important pillar of their national economy.
3. The development of marine transportation industry is conducive to improving the industrial structure of the country and the structure of international trade export commodities
Marine transportation is realized by the practice of navigation activities, which are based on shipbuilding, navigation technology and skilled seafarers. Shipbuilding industry is a comprehensive industry. Its development can also drive the development of steel industry, shipbuilding equipment industry, electronic instrument industry, and promote the improvement of the industrial structure of the whole country. China has gradually become a ship export country from the original ship import country in recent years, and is moving towards the ranks of ship export countries. Due to the continuous development of China's navigation technology, the dispatch of crew has attracted the attention of all countries in the world. With the development of the marine transportation industry, China's ocean-going transport fleet has entered the top 10 in the world, providing conditions for the large-scale ship dismantling industry in the future, not only providing cheap raw materials, saving energy and the consumption of imported ores for the smelting of China's steel plants, but also exporting scrap steel. It can be seen that the development of marine transportation industry can not only improve the national industrial structure, but also improve the commodity structure in international trade.
4. Marine transport fleet is an important reserve force for national defense
The ocean shipping fleet has always been used as a means of logistics transportation in wartime. The United States, Britain and other countries call the merchant fleet "the fourth service except land, sea and air", and the merchant fleet of the former Soviet Union is also called "shadow fleet" by western countries. It can be seen that it plays a role in the victory or defeat of the war. Because marine transportation occupies such an important position, all countries in the world attach great importance to the maritime shipping industry, protect it through legislation, support and subsidize it financially, and give preferential treatment in cargo loading.